History of Bongaon

         Bongaon Police District is coterminous with Bongaon subdivision under North 24 Parganas. Before going into the history of the district of North 24 Parganas, it may be mentioned that there were no existence of a district named North 24 Parganas before 1986. It was only in the year 1986 this district was carved out from the erstwhile 24 Parganas district.


         In 2nd century A.D. we get the reference of the ancient land of GANGARIDI in the writing of Ptolemy’s Treatise where it is mentioned that the stretch of GANGARIDI was stretched between the rivers Bhagirathi-Hoogly (lower Ganges) and Padma-Meghna. It is well understood that undivided Twenty-Four Parganas was the south and the south-eastern part of the Gangaridi kingdom.


         Archaeological excavation at Berachampa village under Deganga P.S., indicates that the area was directly not attached to the Gupta rules but could not avoid their cultural influence. Even when Xuanzang (c.629-685) visited India, he found 30 Buddhist Bihar (monastery) and 100 Hindu temples throughout India of which some of those were in this region. The district was also not a part of Emperor Shashanka’s unified Bengali Empire i.e. Gauda, but it is assumed that the district was the south-west frontier territory of ancient Bengal, and was under the rule of Dharmapala (estimated c. 770-810).


         In mid-16th century A.D., the region was invaded by the Portuguese pirates who used to invade and plunder many of the waterways and loot the prosperous human settlements. As a result, people started leaving their ancestral place. In the early years of the 17th century, Maharaja (King) Pratapaditya fought and resisted the Portuguese. Maharaja Pratapaditya was a Bhuian(feudal lord of Bengal who declared their sovereignty from the Mughal Empire along with another 11 Bhuians together referred as the Baro Bhuians means twelve chieftains) of Jessore, Khulna, Barisal and Greater 24 Parganas. Maharaja Pratapaditya was defeated and captured in the battles of Salka and Magrahat by the Mughals.


         Earlier the territory of Greater 24 Parganas were under the Satgaon (ancient Saptagram, now in Hoogly district) administration during the Mughal era and later it was included in Hoogly chakla (district under post-Mughal Nawabi rule) during the rule of Murshid Quli Khan. In 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, Nawab Mir Jafar confer the Zamindari of some parganas (24 in number which include Amirpur, Akbarpur, Balia, Birati, Kolkata etc). Since then entire territory is known as 24 Parganas.


         Earlier the territory of Greater 24 Parganas were under the Satgaon (ancient Saptagram, now in Hoogly district) administration during the Mughal era and later it was included in Hoogly chakla (district under post-Mughal Nawabi rule) during the rule of Murshid Quli Khan. In 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, Nawab Mir Jafar confer the Zamindari of some parganas (24 in number which include Amirpur, Akbarpur, Balia, Birati, Kolkata etc). Since then entire territory is known as 24 Parganas.


         In 1793, during the rule of Lord Cornwallis, entire Sunderbans became the part of 24 Parganas. In 1802, some more parganas were attached with the district from Nadia. For administrative purpose, a separate collectorate was established in 1814. Later, Falta and Baranagar was included in the district in 1817, some potions of Nadia’s Balanda and Anwarpur in 1820 and in 1824, portion of Barasat, Khulna and Bakhargunge (now in Bangladesh) were also included to it.


         In 1824, the district headquarters was shifted from Kolkata to Baruipur, but in 1828, it was removed to Alipore. In 1834, the district was split into two districts –Alipore and Barasat, but later these were united again.


         Bongaon has witnessed Neel Bidroha, the Indigo Cultivators’ Revolt in late 18th Century. In 1788 the Director of the East India Company urged for large scale indigo cultivation under Company's domains with cheap native labour. And began to take lease of lands from zamindars on pattani. In 1830-31 both the zamindars and British Planters jointly opposed the peasants who revolted against the cultivation system spread over Bongaon, Barasat and Basirhat.


         Ultimately during 1859-61 the poor and exploited peasant rose in spontaneous revolt against indigo planters and first notable resistance was led by Biswanath Sardar of village Chaugachha of Nadia district which spread over Bangaon and Barasat Sub-divisions. A small taluqdar of indigo plantation named Sivnath Ghosh of the village Srirampur in 24 Parganas, also put resistance against an oppressive planter Renny and was supported largely by the peasants. All 12 (twelve) Neel-kuthis were attacked including Mangalganj Kuthi of Bongaon.


         As English rulers failed to control vast area of Nadia and 24 Paraganas at the time of peasant and indigo revolt in 1860 they converted Khulna,Jhinaidah,Magura and Narail of presently Bangladesh, into sub-division(1861-62). The district's Southern part Satkhira was connected to 24 parganas in 1863. Bongaon Sub-division was included to Jessore district at the last part of 1863.


         When India got freedom in 1947, Bongaon subdivision was part of Jessore district of newly born East Pakistan. However, when the details of the Radcliffe award were published, Bongaon came over to 24 Parganas district of West Bengal on the 18th of August. 1947.


         In post-independence period, as per recommendation of an administrative reform committee headed by Dr. Ashok Mitra, the 24 Pargans district was bifurcated on 1st April 1986 into two parts- (1) North Twenty-Four Parganas, which includes Bongaon subdivision, and (2) South Twenty-Four Parganas, having headquarters at Barasat and Alipore respectively.


         Another administrative reform took place on 05th March, 2018 when Barasat Police District was created by bifurcation of North 24-Parganas District Police to serve the people in a better way. However, Government of West Bengal further declared on May 2019 to form Bongaon Police District curving out Barasat Police district for better policing and administration of this bordering area. Accordingly, newly created Bongaon Police District started functioning on and from 30th May, 2019, under the leadership of Shri Tarun Haldar, IPS



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